Effluent is generally considered as water pollution, flowing out of a factory, farm, commercial establishment, or a household into water bodies such as a river, lake, streams, ponds or a sewer system. Nowadays effluent has gained a wider coverage as it includes almost every waste that pour into our water and air.
Liquid factory waste, smoke, and raw sewage can all be called effluents. Effluent Treatment Plants are another form of waste water treatment plants which are designed and manufactured specially for treating water that contains effluents and works towards making the water effluent-free.
Water is most important part in everyone's life, be it personal life or industrial life. No one can live without water and even no production can occur without it. Hence, it becomes necessary to utilize the available water to the maximum extent or not to dispose the same hazardously. However, the quantity used by different industries may differ due to different usage but still much of the important task such as washing, drinking, dilution etc. are performed through water. If the industry has a right to use the water then it becomes their duty to make it clean or re-usable. Industries consume the clean water and generate the polluted water which includes harmful chemicals such as oils, grease, solids etc. Water produced through the industrial process is called "waste water" or "Effluent".
Our duty is to clean the pollutants through the effective water treatment methods. So, plants are established for this process and these plants are called "Effluent Treatment plant". As the name suggest, it involves removing the pollutants under the water to make it usable for another process and then to make the environment pollution free.
CETP's are set up in the industrial estates where there are clusters of small scale industrial units and where many polluting industries are located. Many of the Small Scale Industries (SSI) are unable to install the individual treatment systems. Hence, the concept of CETP's (Common Effluent Treatment Plants) is envisaged to benefit such industries in treating its effluent before disposal whether it is in stream, land, sewerage system or in rivers and seas.
The Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India has launched the centrally sponsored scheme, namely,Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) in order to make a co-operative movement of pollution control especially to treat the effluent, emanating from group of compatible Small-Scale Industries. The CETP therefore, reduces the treatment cost to be borne by an individual member unit while protecting the water environment to a maximum.
Pollution Control Board has prescribed the quality standards for emmitting effluents. Hence, companies must adhere to those norms while constructing and installing ETPs.